Coffee begins the day for many of us, so now let’s see how it started. It was cultivated from the Ethiopian plant Coffea arabica and became so much more over time. It’s even had central placing in movies like “Out of Africa”, where Meryl Streep’s character grows it in Kenya. According to the National Coffee Association, the coffee plant was first discovered by an Ethiopian goatherd named Kaldi. Soon, everyone was growing the bean. By the sixteenth century, the Arabs were trading it far and wide.

GROWING AND PICKING

The coffee bean is very temperamental. It grows well within the latitudes of 25 degrees north to 30 degrees south; the environment is nice and moist and the ground is very fertile. If a hurricane comes through the region of a coffee plantation, or a nearby volcano erupts – even if there’s a bit of a frost – it’ll change the chemistry of the plant, thereby altering the taste subtly. It’s like a fine wine, in that way. A hard frost or an excess of the bacteria that usually makes wine sweeter, will change the taste of the vintage. This is why you find many different coffee tastes.

Still, the arabica coffee bean that was discovered by that goatherd survives – and thrives – today. It’s much more common, too, than its relative the robust, growing all over the world. For instance, it’s found in the mountains of Columbia. Americans used to regularly see Juan Valdez selling Columbian coffee on his mule. Actually, in Columbia, that’s the way the beans are transported because the landscape is so tough. Columbian coffee is tasty, and very good quality with balanced acidity that makes it very good. By contrast, Brazilian coffee is considered much more mild. Brazil grows both major strains of coffee, arabica in the mountains and robusta where it’s happiest, namely on or around sea level. But both varieties of the bean grown in Brazil turn out a nice, low-acidic drink. These are just two examples of coffee. But note the difference between the bean from only a few thousand miles apart.

Some places you might not think of necessarily with regards to coffee are Hawaii and Guatemala. The coffee from here is as different as Columbian coffee is from Yemani. Hawaiian coffee grows in dark, volcanic soil, which gives it a very rich flavor. In fact, Hawaii is the only state of the Union which grows coffee beans, and its coffee is very expensive due to its rarity. Guatemalan coffee, on the other hand, is even less well-known, but worthy of trying sometime. The rough landscape of that country is similar to that of Columbia, but the coffee from Guatemala is almost like very strong chocolate milk in flavor, aroma and texture, and is extremely strong. Some people say it’s spicy.

Folgers, one of the most powerful coffee suppliers in the United States, interestingly enough uses a blend of both arabica and robusta beans from Asia and Brazil in its drink. By contrast, Maxwell House has used only blends of U.S.-grown arabica coffee, as of the end of 2007. “Good to the Last Drop” was its slogan for years, you may remember. Now it is “Brew Some Good.” Maxwell House’s new tactic seems to be getting it a little notice; the company has remained firmly second to Folgers in popularity, probably because it’s a little more expensive since arabica beans are more expensive to grow and keep healthy than robusta.

PROCESSING, PAST AND PRESENT

There are two ways coffee beans are currently processed: dry and wet. The dry process is much more traditional, and gives a stronger flavor than the wet process which is much more modern and uses machines to create a smoother, richer taste. It tends to work better in drier areas of the world, such as Yemen for instance, where coffee beans grow smaller and tighter. However, although in such areas the arabica bean is processed in this way, for the rest of the world dry processing is done with the robusta type of bean. (Yemen, one of the countries where coffee was first processed historically, does this for instance). The “wet process” of the arabica bean is actually fairly new, and requires several steps. This helps arabica beans maintain their more acidic flavor. (Columbia does this).

Dry-processing is a very traditional way to process coffee beans, and has been done for centuries. To dry-process a coffee bean, growers shake out the beans and leave them to dry, mostly just via the sun. Then, those beans are sorted through to be sure there are no green coffee beans in the mix.

The newer wet processing of the coffee bean is a much more intense and orderly one than the traditional method. Arabica beans are washed once after picking in huge amounts of water, and then de-pulped in a machine that actually squeezes the pulp out of the bean. This needs to be done as soon as possible after picking, because if the beans sit too long and get discoloration, the quality and taste that the grower and buyer of the coffee are after will suffer. The beans’ pulp is then fermented and washed again, and dried until the mix reaches about 12 per cent moisture which is optimal for shipping purposes. Like in dry processing, the coffee is often dried in the sun, but when it needs to move out faster than that, growers will use hot blowers on it.

Coffees from far away are sometimes put through aging, a process where the bean is let to ripen in the sack just like wine is left in a cask for decades. In some countries like Indonesia, where they have had a tough time growing coffee due to the environment there, greener coffee of the robusta kind has become popular. Coffee there has been aged for up to 8 years at a time; some people think it makes the drink made from those beans taste better.

After both the wet and the dry processes, the coffee is cured. This requires the bean to yet again be washed and sorted, and then graded for fine or rougher texture. Curing is important to get the full flavor out of the bean. If the grower has machinery to work with, he’ll put the coffee through that to be sure and get rid of every bad bean in the mix.

Coffee is so popular because of the Arabs, but it’s grown far beyond their little port in Yemen from which the first documented coffee was traded. Did you know that the word “Mocha” comes from the name of a Yemani port from which coffee was brought all around the world by the Dutch? It’s something to consider, the next time you pick up that steaming, morning cup. Where did those beans you’re now tasting come from, anyway?

Car insurance can provide you with personal, financial and medical protection. Especially if you put more than 15,000 miles per year on your car and spend a lot of time on the road, you are more likely to be involved in a car accident than another driver who drives less miles and spends less time on the road. Therefore, auto insurance is absolutely necessary to offer you protection against potential bodily injuries and property damages.

There are minimum levels of required auto insurance per State, and every State except New Hampshire requires drivers to have a basic auto insurance policy. Typically, a basic auto insurance coverage includes bodily injury coverage, property damage coverage, medical expenses coverage, collision coverage, comprehensive coverage and uninsured motorist coverage/ underinsured motorist coverage.

Driving Uninsured? There Are Consequences

Driving without insurance is misdemeanor, which is “a less serious crime, generally punishable by a fine or incarceration in the county jail for less than one year.” So, if you drive without insurance and you get involved in a car accident, you may face monetary fines, legal penalties or even jail time.

The following are the consequences of driving uninsured.

Auto liability Insurance

Auto liability insurance is the most common type of auto insurance. As a motorist you are responsible for your own safety, but also for the safety of the people who ride with you in the vehicle and other people on the road. Typically, auto liability insurance comprises of two different policies: bodily injury liability and property damage liability. These offer you protection against the cost of bodily injuries and property damages you may cause to yourself and/or to third parties when involved in a car accident.

If you drive without insurance and you cause bodily injuries or property damages to third parties, you may face serious financial consequences that can put you in a financially compromising situation. To know the limits of financial reimbursement for individual bodily injury, injured third parties and damaged property make sure to read the three numbers, known as split limits of liability insurance that are typically demonstrated as 15/30/10 or 20/40/10 etc.

Monetary fines

The monetary fines associated to uninsured driving are exceptionally high. According to the National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC), imposing large fines best assists to the enforcement of auto insurance requirements.

The exact amount of the fine varies by state, but typically, the monetary fines for driving without insurance are:

$5,000 fine plus 25% surcharge = $6,250 for first conviction
$10,000 fine plus 25% surcharge = $12,500 for a second conviction

Legal penalties

In addition to monetary fines, many states impose legal penalties. These may include the suspension of your uninsured’s vehicle registration and/or suspension of your driver’s license for up to one year. Moreover, points may be taken out of your driver’s license and your uninsured vehicle may be impounded.

Jail time

In some States, repeat offense for driving without insurance can send you to jail. Jail time can be up to 30 days depending on the situation and the state you live in, but you will be required to appear in front of a judge and possibly be charged with monetary fines, jail time or both.

Overall, driving without insurance is a serious legal and social offense associated with high monetary fines, legal penalties or even jail time. A 2011 study by the Insurance Research Council (IRC) estimates that nearly 14.3% (1 out of 7) drivers in the United States are driving without insurance. This can be explained by the fact that auto insurance, in some cases, may be expensive. However, if you do your research, shop around for auto insurance and compare auto insurance quotes, you can come up with an affordable auto insurance premium and have the best auto insurance policy. Besides, the risk of being caught driving uninsured and the monetary fines associated to uninsured driving will definitely outweigh the cost of purchasing auto insurance policy.

GPT means Get Paid To. You can sign up for these sites and earn money by completing different task. The most common methods of earning money are reading emails, viewing sites in 15 to 30 second intervals, completing or participating in surveys, signing up for trial offers and cash back shopping.

Most people don’t use their credit cards when looking to make money online. Almost all GPT sites are free to join and they also offer plenty of free ways to earn cash. The only problem is that these methods don’t earn as much as using your credit card to do free trials. The free offers and surveys normally pay between $0.20 to $1.50.

Free trials might pay between $3 to $40 or more depending on the offer. All you have to do is cancel the subscription before the free trial runs out but after you get credit for it. So this means that you could make a lot more money by using your credit card and still not spend a penny.

Some offers do require small purchases but you will always make that money back. If you spend $1 you might get paid $10 for completing that offer. That’s a $9 profit. Some GPT sites used to accept visa gift cards as a way to pay but this is no longer allowed. You can use credit cards, check cards or debit cards with a Visa, MasterCard, Discover or American Express logo.

If you have a pay pal account you can get a computer generated one time use credit card number linked to your account. You can use this anywhere that requires a credit card. The only thing you cannot get is the 3 digit verification number you might be required to enter (this is normally a 3 digit number on the back of a credit card).

Pay pal also offers debit and credit cards. The debit card is useful because you can use it at ATM’s and you get 1% cash back every time you use it as a credit card, this includes online purchases. Your credit limit is the amount in your Pay Pal account. If you go over your amount you are required to have a back source of funds like another credit card or bank account. It works like a check card and is sponsored by MasterCard. So if you use this to do free trial offers you not only get paid to complete that offer but if you have to make a purchase you also get 1% of that back.

In order to keep track of the use of your credit card you should keep a record of every time you use it. A good idea would be to make a spreadsheet and record information such as the date in which you need to cancel an offer, any important contact information and phone numbers (like the one to call for cancellation) and the amount you will get paid for completing the offer. If you can be organized then this could bring a lot of money to your monthly income. Don’t sign up for too many at once if you are just starting out. This could result in actually have to pay full price for something you don’t want.

There’s nothing like becoming one with nature while camping, but even when you feel as close to nature as possible, you still crave that early morning cup of coffee. So what do you do? Well, just because you’re sleeping out under the stars, you don’t have to lose your morning boost. The only problem is there’s no automatic coffee maker in nature. But don’t fear, making coffee while camping is a simple task that you can complete before other groggy, grumpy campers wake up demanding their steamy hot cup of joe.

One simple way to make coffee over a campfire begins by boiling about two quarts of water over the fire. After it’s boiling pretty well, remove it from the heat and add about two handfuls (more or less to taste) of finely ground coffee. Let the boiling water take on the flavor of the coffee grounds for four minutes, and then add a couple tablespoons of cold water, which will help settle the grounds to the bottom. Your coffee is now ready to serve!

Another simple way to make coffee is a slight variation of the one above. These measurements should give you six cups of coffee. Start by putting six teaspoons of ground coffee in the bottom of a pot. Them add three pints of water and bring it to a boil over the fire. Boil for about twelve minutes, and then let it set for three more minutes. Again, you want to add a small amount of cold water so the grounds can settle before serving.

Along with these more natural ways of brewing coffee, many people also choose to use a percolator or French press. However, I feel that they take more away from the camping experience, and they also require extra baggage while packing up the car and hiking to your campsite. If you do choose to use these commodities, they might help to remove grounds from your coffee cups, especially with the French press, which uses a plunger to keep the grounds in place.

For all you people out there that enjoy camping, but aren’t so primitive, don’t fret. Campfire coffeemakers are also available for purchase at many stores, including Wal-Mart. These produce coffee just like automatic coffeemakers, but do not require any batteries or electrical power.

No matter which method you choose to make coffee at your home away from home, there are a few other things to keep in mind. First of all, water supply is sometimes limited at campsites, and you don’t want to be making coffee with bad water. So it’s a good idea to bring bottled water along with you, not only for drinking, but also for making coffee. Also, coffee grounds tend to spoil fast, so pack them in airtight containers to help them last throughout the duration of your camping trip. If you will be camping for a long period of time, you might want to consider bringing actual coffee beans and a grinder so that your coffee will continue to taste fresh and those groggy, grumpy campers you brought with you will be ready to start their day.

The history of coffee is a complicated one indeed. It was discovered around the year 500 AD somewhere in the middle east, no one is exactly sure where. There are many legends on the origin of coffee, one claiming the exiled Arab Sheik saved himself from starvation by turning the berries on a coffee shrub into soup. However, there is still no evidence to this day on the true origins of coffee.

I found that around 700 AD Africans drank coffee with animal-fat balls for energy and relaxed at the end of the day with a wine made from berries off coffee shrubs. This is also about the time when coffee made it’s debut in Arabia, most likely by Arab tradesmen. By the end of the 9th century Qaha, meaning that which prevents sleep, was being made by boiling coffee beans in water. Coffee drinks soon became known as Arabian Wine, as Muslims are not allowed to drink wine but used coffee as a happy substitute. Coffee is known to have been used in Mosques, during times of prayer, at the Holy Temple at Mecca and before the tomb of the Prophet. Oddly enough, it was not until people used coffee for food, wine and medicinal purposes that it was discovered you could create a delicious drink by roasting the beans. By the end of the 13th century Muslims were drinking coffee constantly. Wherever Islam went coffee followed not far behind.

Between 1250 and 1600 coffee was being cultivated from the Yemen area of Africa when extensive planting began. At this time the Arabs guarded coffee jealously. They were desperately trying to prevent coffee from traveling to other countries. They refused to allow coffee beans out of the country without first being sun-dried or boiled to kill the seed-germ. It is said that coffee did not sprout outside of Africa or Arabia until the 1600s. It was this reason that Yemen served as the world’s primary source for coffee.

We all know that at some point in history coffee made it’s grand escape, so where did it go to first? In about 1473 coffee was introduced to Turkey. Two years later a man named Kiv Han created the world’s first coffee house in Constantinople (now known as Istanbul). In the year 1511 Khair Beg, the governor of Mecca tired to ban coffee saying that it’s influence would foster opposition to his rule. The ban ultimately led to his execution by order of the sultan. The sultan then declared coffee as being sacred. Around the year 1600 Italian priests asked Pope Clement VIII to make coffee forbidden to Christians. They said coffee was part of the infidel threat to their country. After taking his first sip, the pope found the drink delicious and deemed it an acceptable Christian beverage. By the mid 16th century coffee was available in Egypt, Syria, Persia, and Turkey. Coffee shops could be found in the cities of Medina, Cairo, Baghdad, Alexandria, Damas, and Istanbul. At about the same time King Solomon the Magnificent’s Turkish warriors introduced coffee to the Balkans, Central Europe, Spain and North Africa. Attempts to ban coffee during this period occurred frequently, but with little effect.

It is thought that Captain John Smith brought coffee to North America around the year 1607 when he helped found the colony of Virginia. By the end of the 1660s coffee had succeeded in replacing beer as the ritual drink with breakfast in New York City. There were coffee houses everywhere including New York of course, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. These American coffee houses though, not only served coffee, but ale, wine, beer, and chocolate as well. They also had rooms for rent. The Green Dragon coffee house in Boston became popular with the British officers at first and would later become the meeting place of John Adams, and the others plotting the revolutionary war!

It wasn’t until the year 1615 when Europe’s first shipment of green coffee beans was received in Venice and later in 1683 the first coffee house there was established- Caffe Florian. However, the British were the first Europeans to drink coffee commercially. Their first coffee house was built in Oxford in 1650 opened by a Turkish Jew named Jacob. In 1652 coffee houses began to pop up all over London. Within just a few years there were hundreds of them all over the place! In 1656 the Grand Vizir of the Ottoman Empire succeeded in closing the coffee houses of Turkey.

Later in 1669, the Ambassador of the Turkish Ottoman Empire brought coffee to the court of King LouisXIV, and offered it to all who visited him. He even convinced the king to have a taste, unfortunately the king preferred hot chocolate! Then in 1674 The Women’s Petition Against Coffee was set up. The women complained that the men were not to be found in times of domestic crises the were too busy in the coffee shops drinking coffee and talking all night long. They circulated a petition protesting ” the grand inconveniences accruing to their sex from the excessive use of the dying and enfeebling liquor.” On year later in 1675, King Charles the second tried to suppress the coffee houses claiming they were “hotbeds of revolution”. His proclamation was later revoked after a huge public outcry- the ban lasted only 11 days.

It wasn’t until the end of the 16th century that coffee really spread throughout Europe. In 1683 coffee found it’s way to Vienna just after they had been besieged in war with the Turks. Polish Army Officer Franz Georg Kolschtzky claimed all the stocks of coffee left by then fleeing Turkish troops for himself. Later he opened the first Central European coffee house in Vienna. This is where he created the method of filtering the grounds, adding a sweetener and adding milk to coffee hence creating Viennese Coffee.

In 1690 the Dutch were the first to smuggle a coffee plant out of Arabia, becoming the first to transport and cultivate coffee commercially. They established the East India coffee trade by taking the coffee plan to what is now known as Sri Lanka ( then called Ceylon ). As a result Amsterdam, then became the trading center for coffee.

By the 17th century the popularity of coffee became such that the city of London had more coffee houses back then, than they do today! To find a coffee shop in those days, one would simply sniff the air for the aroma of roasting coffee beans, or simply search for a wooden sign shaped like a Turkish coffee pot. Now even though Venice and Marseilles had coffee during the first half of this century there was no trade of the product there. Here’s a little bit of information for you, it was in the English coffee houses where it became customary to tip your servers. Yes, people who wanted good service and better seating arrangements would put money in a tin labeled ” To Insure Prompt Service” or what is now called the tip jar.

Jonathan’s Coffee House in London was where stockbrokers usually met. Later it became known as the London Stock Exchange. Also, ship owners and marine insurance brokers visited Edward Lloyd’s Coffee House. It too moved up in the world and became the center of world insurance and the headquarters of Lloyds of London.

In 1714 the mayor of Amsterdam sent a young coffee tree to King Louis XIV as a present. This plant was given to the royal botanist to place in the King’s Royal Botanical Garden. It would be that very plant’s seedling descendants that would wind up producing the whole Western coffee industry! Naval officer Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu was in Paris on leave and requested some of the King’s tree clippings to take back to Martinique with him. No, he wasn’t exactly handed over clippings of the tree but permission wasn’t denied either. He was determined to get them! So under light of the moon he raided the King’s Garden and managed to steal a seedling from the greenhouse. On the way back to Martinique he encountered a number of setbacks, including a branch being torn from the seedling, the ship being attacked, and a heavy storm. Upon his arrival he planted the tree on his own estate, where under armed guard it yielded an approximate total of 18 million trees by the end of 1777!
By 1715 the French had introduced coffee into the New World. British coffee consumption began to decline as import duties for coffee increased. The British East India Company concentrated on importing tea as the market began to grow.

In 1727, the Brazilian emperor sent Lt. Col. Fancisco de Melo Palheta to French Guiana to mediate the border dispute between the French and Dutch. The Colonel succeeded in settling the dispute. He also initiated an affair with the governor’s wife! In the end, it paid off, at the governor’s dinner, she presented him with a bouquet of flowers containing hidden cuttings of fertile coffee seeds. That is how the world’s greatest coffee empire sprouted, and created the great coffee plantations of Latin America.

We all know the name Johann Sebastian Bach. He composed his “Kafee – Kantate” or Coffee Cantata in 1732. Partly as an ode to coffee the other part was taking a stab at the movement in Germany prohibiting women from consuming coffee claiming it made them sterile. The cantata includes the aria “Ah! How sweet coffee tastes! Lovelier than a thousand kisses, sweeter far than muscatel wine! I must have coffee…”

As is written in American history tea was still the favored drink in the colonies until the year 1773 when the people of Boston revolted against King George’s high tea tax. Everyone knows the story, the people of Boston raided the English merchant ships in the harbor and threw their cargo of tea overboard. This act became known as the infamous “Boston Tea Party”. This is also when Americans switched from tea to coffee ,because it was their patriotic duty.
In 1775, Prussia’s Frederick The Great attempted to block imports of green coffee as Persia’s funding lowered. He urged his subjects to drink been instead of coffee and called the increase in coffee consumption disgusting. He even hired men to walk to streets sniffing for the outlawed aroma of home roasted coffee beans. A public outcry a short time later swayed his decision.
In the 1780s the first coffee brewers to feature a place for the filter ( Mr. Biggin coffee pots ) began to surface and became very popular. To make coffee one would place a sock filled with coffee grounds across the mouth of the brewer and pour hot water over the grounds. The coffee was then dispensed from a spout on the side of the pot. The quality of the coffee depended on the sized of the grounds – too course and the coffee was weak, too fine – and the water wouldn’t go through the filter. A major problem with the brewer was the taste of the cloth filter – no matter if it was cotton, burlap, or an old sock – would always be in the taste of the coffee!

By the year of 1800 Brazil’s harvests would turn coffee into a drink not only for the upscale and high class, but a drink for all! In 1818 the American’s created what was known as Cowboy Coffee by pouring the beans into a pot with water, and boiling them. When they were done being boiled they would strain the coffee before consuming it. At this same time a Parisian metal smith named Laurens invented the first coffee percolator.

People were always inventing new and improved ways of making coffee and in the year 1882 Louis Bernard Rabaut invented the world’s first espresso machine. He found a way to force hot water through the ground using steam instead of simply letting it drip through. In 1889 an Illinois farmer named Hanson Goodrich patented an American percolator coffee pot. Claims have been made that he was not the true inventor that it was James Mason who created it in 1865. In the 1890s the plunger filter ,or what is now called the French Press coffee brewer, was invented. It works by having the coffee grounds in a filter compartment that is lowered into the hot water and then pulled up again by a rod when the brewing is complete. The idea behind this is that the grounds could be removed before the coffee becomes bitter. French Press brewers are still quite popular today. There are some claims that an Italian named Calimani invented the French Press brewer in 1933.

In 1905 an Italian named Desiderio Pavoni, bought a patent from Luigi Bezzera and formed the first company ( La Pavoni ) to market a commercial espresso machine. Pavoni hired famous designers to design his machines for him.
Now we enter present day coffee. It started as just a simple plant, but by the 20th century it developed into both instant and decaf! Decaffeinated coffee came to be in the year 1903. A German coffee importer by the name of Ludwig Roselius gave a batch of ruined beans to researchers. They were not the first to try but the first to perfect the process of removing caffeine from coffee beans without completely destroying the flavor. Mr. Roselius marketed the coffee under the brand name ” Sanka “. Sanka was later introduced to the U.S. in 1923.

Satori Kato, a Japanese – American chemist from Chicago invented the first soluble coffee, however, George Constant Washington, a chemist living in Guatemala invented the first mass produced instant coffee. In 1906 he began experiments and began marketing his products, Red E Coffee, in 1909. In 1938 after being asked by Brazil to solve the problems of their coffee surpluses, Nestle created freeze dried coffee. Nescafe was developed and first introduced to Switzerland. It wasn’t until after 1956, after the invention of the TV, that instant coffee really became a hit. There wasn’t enough time in a commercial break to really brew a pot of coffee or tea, but there was just enough time to fix a quick cup of the instant stuff! No need to really say it but Nestle and General Foods saw this as their big chance to market and advertise their individual instant coffees and they took it. This was also about the same time when tea companies started to fight back with coffee and introduced the creation of the tea bag. The government took control of the British tea trade during the second World War causing the introduction of rations which continued until 1952. After the war was over though, people never really picked up the tea habit again, the stuck with coffee.

In 1946 Achilles Gaggia of Italy perfected the modern day espresso machine. He created a spring lever system enabling the use of a higher pressure. He brought his revolutionary machine to London sometime in the 1950s and opened up his very own mocha bar – the first modern day coffee bar.

Due to the economic importance of coffee exports, many of Latin America’s countries made arrangements prior to WW2 to allocate export quotas so that each country would get their fair share of the market. The first coffee quota agreement was made in 1940, but it was not until 1962 that the idea was accepted by the entire world.

In 1971 Starbuck’s opened its first location in Seattle’s Pikes Place market. It was in 1972 that Vincent Marotta invented the first automatic coffee maker for home use, prior to this in 1963 the Bunn corporation introduced the automatic drip coffee maker for use in restaurants.

During the five-year period when this agreement was in effect, 41 exporting countries and 25 importing countries agreed to its terms. Are-negotiation of the agreement was made in 1968, 1976 and 1983. Participating nations did not sign a new pact in 1989 causing world coffee prices to plunge. There were a series of crop failures, most notably in Brazil in the early 1990s which meant that coffee prices increased dramatically. Only recently have prices begun to drop again.